What are the different parts of a plant and flower?

Plants are living organisms. They have different parts called organs, and each organ has a specific function.

These organs work together to enable the plant to carry out its life processes. Groups of similar plant cells work together to form tissue. Similar tissues then work together to form an organ. All the different organs then work together to form the organism. So in a normal plant, the roots, stem, leaves, and flower work together to make up the plant.

Plants are part of the Plantae kingdom, and they exist all around Earth. Plants are important as they release oxygen that we breathe, and they eliminate harmful toxins. Moreover, plants are producers; therefore, they are a source of food for many animals. Plants make their food via the process of photosynthesis.

Plants have a waxy layer (cuticle) on their surface which prevents them from drying out and protects them. 

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells. These are big and complex cells that have membrane-bound organelles. The genetic material is enclosed in a nucleus. Plant cells have organelles, these organelles are structures that perform different functions in the cell. Plant cells have regular shapes. Some plants can be vascular or non-vascular

What are the parts of a plant cell?

The parts that make up a plant cell are:

  • Nucleus
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm 
  • Mitochondria
  • Ribosomes
  • Cell wall 
  • Chloroplast 
  • Vacuole

The main differences between animal and plant cells are that plant cells have a cell wall surrounding the membrane, chloroplasts, and a vacuole. 


The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle in a cell. The nucleus contains genetic material. It controls the cell’s activities, such as growth and metabolism. The nucleus carries genes and other structures that contain hereditary information. Inside the nucleus are small bodies called nucleoli.

Cell membrane 

The cell membrane is also known as the plasma membrane. The cell membrane is made of a semi-permeable lipid bilayer. It controls the movement of substances that go in and out of the cell. It can do this as it has a structure that is permeable to some substances and not others. You can think of the cell membrane as a gatekeeper. It separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment in order to control what foes in and out of the cell in order to protect it.


The cytoplasm is a jelly-like liquid that fills the inside of a cell. The cytoplasm contains nutrients, salts, and other membrane-bound organelles. Many chemical reactions also occur in the cytoplasm, for example, the chemical reaction of respiration in mitochondria.


Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of the cell. Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles. They contain enzymes for aerobic respiration, and this is where most energy is released from respiration. The chemical energy that is produced by the mitochondria is then stored in small molecules called ATP (adenosine triphosphate).


The ribosome is a small organelle found in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. The ribosome structure is made of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein. The ribosome forms proteins by reading the mRNA (messenger RNA) sequence and then translating the specific genetic code into a specific string of amino acids. The amino acids form a long chain that folds to create proteins.

Cell wall 

The cell wall is made from cellulose fibers. The cell wall surrounds the cell membrane, this is what gives the plant cell a unique rectangular shape. It helps to strengthen the cell and provides support for the plant.


Chloroplasts are organelles that contain green pigment. The green pigment is called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll contains light energy for photosynthesis. It also contains enzymes required for photosynthesis to take place. Plant cells also have a permanent vacuole. This is filled with fluid or cell sap.


The vacuole provides installation for the cell and the plant. The vacuole also stores sugars.

Although all plant cells are made up of the same components, they don’t all look the same. The reason for this is that plant cells are specialised for their functions. Examples of phloem cells and xylem cells.

Phloem cells 

Phloem cells are plant cells that build the transport system for sugars. The cell walls have holes at each end in order to allow sugar to move from one cell to the next cell.

Xylem cells

Xylem cells are plant cells that build the transport system for water and mineral salts. These cells are strengthened with a hard substance called lignin. The reason for this is that lignin helps the cells withstand changes in the pressure of water.

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What are the parts of a plant?

Parts of a plant:

  • Roots
  • Stem
  • Leaves
  • Flower
  • Fruit


The roots of a plant help to keep the plant anchored into the ground. This prevents it from being blown away. Roots are also important for nutrition because they contain root hairs, which absorb water and minerals from the soil. The water and nutrients then travel through the plant. In some plants, the roots can also be used for food storage. 


The stem of a plant provides support and helps to keep the plant standing upright. This is important because plants need to stay upright in order to absorb sunlight. The stem is also required for the nutrition of the plant, this is because it transports the water and nutrients from the root to the leaves and flowers. So after the roots have absorbed water and nutrients from the soil, the stem allows them to be carried up to the leaves. The xYlem and phloem make up the vascular tissue of plants. Xylem transports water and mineral salts, whereas phloem transports nutrients. 


The leaves of a plant are very important as this is where the process of photosynthesis takes place. Photosynthesis is the leaves use sunlight, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O), to create glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2). This is essential for the plant to survive and grow; therefore, the leaves are required for nutrition. Leaves are usually big and flat in order to absorb a lot of sunlight for photosynthesis. The epidermis of the leaves secretes a waxy substance that protects the leaf from bacteria, insects, and any other pests. 


Flowers are the reproductive organs of a plant. Flowers have petals that help to protect the parts of the flower. The petals are usually brightly coloured and have a nice scent. This is important as it attracts pollinators. The flowers are also involved in producing seeds and fruit. Plants have male and female parts which are required for the process of reproduction.


What are the parts of a flower?

Parts of a flower:

  • Petals 
  • Sepal 
  • Anther 
  • Filament 
  • Stigma
  • Style
  • Ovary
  • Ovules


The petals help to protect the parts of the flower. They are usually brightly coloured and have a nice scent. 


The sepals are the parts of the plant that help to protect an unopened flower. Once the flower blooms, the sepal opens up. 

Anther and filament

The anther and filament make up the male part of a flower called the stamen. The stamen consists of anthers that are held up on filaments. Anthers produce pollen grains which are vital for the process of pollination and reproduction of the plant. 

Stigma, style, ovary & ovules 

The stigma, style, ovary, and ovules make up the female part of a flower called the pistil. 

The stigma is the top of the female part of the flower. This is involved in collecting the pollen grains. A pollen tube grows through the style until it reaches the ovary. The pollen tube then fuses with the nucleus of the ovule to complete the process of fertilisation. 

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How do plants grow?

Germination is the process in which the seed begins to develop into a new young plant. This process is controlled by enzymes. There are a few factors required for the plant to grow. Plants require sunlight, water, oxygen, and warm temperature.

The water required by plants comes from the soil. Oxygen is required for aerobic respiration. Warm temperature increases enzyme activity and, ultimately, the growth rate of the plant.

The process of germination begins when a seed is put into the soul. The seed begins to absorb water, and as it does this, the seed coat becomes soft and swells. The seed also requires nutrients which it gets from its food storage in the cotyledons.

After this, the seed ruptures and begins to grow roots and shoots. The root grows into the soil to search for more water and nutrients. The root also helps to keep the seed anchored in place; then, the shoot grows upwards through the soil towards a source of light and air. The seed coat falls off during the process. As the plant continues to grow it will need plenty of air, water, light, nutrients, and enough space to grow. The reason the plant needs all of these things is that it will need to carry out the process of photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is the process in which carbon dioxide, water, and light energy produce oxygen and glucose. Once the roots and shoots are big enough, they can carry out the process of photosynthesis. The cotyledon falls off and becomes part of the soil. The plant then begins to grow leaves, flowers, and fruit. The flowers are also involved in producing seeds and fruit. Plants have male and female parts which are required for the process of reproduction.

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